Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress.
A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world and nature, and a recovery of the cultural heritage of ancient Greece and Rome —these were once understood to be the major achievements of the Renaissance. Today, every particular of this formula is under suspicion if not altogether repudiated. Nevertheless, the term Renaissance remains a widely recognized label for the multifaceted period between the heyday of medieval universalismas embodied in the papacy and Holy Roman Empireand the convulsions and sweeping transformations of the 17th century.
In addition to Classical scholarship, the systematic investigation of the physical world, and commercial enterprise based on private capital, other important innovations of the Middle Ages that came into their own in the period included the revival of urban life, banking, the formation of states, and vernacular literatures. In religious life, the Renaissance was a time of the broadening and institutionalizing of earlier initiatives in lay piety and lay-sponsored clerical reforms, rather than the abandonment of traditional beliefs.
In government, city-states and regional and national principalities supplanted the fading hegemony of the empire and the papacy and obliterated many of the local feudal jurisdictions that had covered Europe, although within states power continued to be monopolized by elites drawing their strength from both landed and mercantile wealth.
For all but exceptional individuals and a few marginal groups, the standards of behaviour continued to arise from traditional social and moral codes. Identity derived from class, family, occupation, and communityalthough each of these social forms was itself undergoing significant modification.
Finally, the older view of the Renaissance centred too exclusively on Italyand within Italy on a few cities— FlorenceVeniceand Rome. By discarding false dichotomies—Renaissance versus Middle Ages, Classical versus Gothic, modern versus feudal—one is able to grasp more fully the interrelatedness of Italy with the rest of Europe and to investigate the extent to which the great centres of Renaissance learning and art were nourished and influenced by less exalted towns and by changes in the pattern of rural life.
For additional treatment of Renaissance thought and intellectual activity, see humanism and classical scholarship.
A Brief Overview of British Literary Periods
Article Contents. Load Previous Page. The Renaissance Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress. Load Next Page.The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The period is often considered to have its own internal divisions: either early and late or early, central or high, and late. Although once regarded as a time of uninterrupted ignorance, superstition, and social oppression, the Middle Ages are now understood as a dynamic period during which the idea of Europe as a distinct cultural unit emerged. During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, political, social, economic, and cultural structures were profoundly reorganized, as Roman imperial traditions gave way to those of the Germanic peoples who established kingdoms in the former Western Empire.
New forms of political leadership were introduced, the population of Europe was gradually Christianized, and monasticism was established as the ideal form of religious life. These developments reached their mature form in the 9th century during the reign of Charlemagne and other rulers of the Carolingian dynastywho oversaw a broad cultural revival known as the Carolingian renaissance.Literary Periods
In the central, or high, Middle Ages, even more dramatic growth occurred. The period was marked by economic and territorial expansion, demographic and urban growth, the emergence of national identity, and the restructuring of secular and ecclesiastical institutions. It was the era of the CrusadesGothic art and architecture, the papal monarchythe birth of the universitythe recovery of ancient Greek thought, and the soaring intellectual achievements of St. Thomas Aquinas c. It has been traditionally held that by the 14th century the dynamic force of medieval civilization had been spent and that the late Middle Ages were characterized by decline and decay.
Europe did indeed suffer disasters of war, famine, and pestilence in the 14th century, but many of the underlying social, intellectual, and political structures remained intact. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europe experienced an intellectual and economic revival, conventionally called the Renaissancethat laid the foundation for the subsequent expansion of European culture throughout the world. Many historians have questioned the conventional dating of the beginning and end of the Middle Ages, which were never precise in any case and cannot be located in any year or even century.
Some scholars have advocated extending the period defined as late antiquity c. Still others argue for the inclusion of the old periods Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Reformation into a single period beginning in late antiquity and ending in the second half of the 16th century.
Article Contents. Load Previous Page. The Middle Ages The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. Load Next Page.Wheeler's page from Carson Newman College. This is a chaotic period of warrior-princes, wandering sea-traders, and fierce pirates. Some of the world's finest art, poetry, drama, architecture, and philosophy originated in Athens.Plural of coursework book study series
Playwrights of this time include Plautus and Terence. Roman writers include OvidHoraceand Virgil. Roman rhetoricians include Cicero and Quintilian. Edmund Spenser is a sample poet. Her reign is marked by the early works of ShakespeareMarloweKydand Sidney. Romantic poets wrote about nature, imagination, and individuality in England. Transcendentalists include Emerson and Thoreau. In Britain, modernist writers include W. Realism is the dominant fashion, but the disillusionment with the World Wars lead to new experimentation.
In northern Europe, this time period marks the setting of Viking sagas. This marks the end of the Anglo-Saxon hierarchy and the emergence of the Twelfth Century Renaissance c. The Neoclassical Period is also called the " Enlightenment " due to the increased reverence for logic and disdain for superstition.
Abroad, Voltaire was the dominant French writer. Major writers include Dr. Pre-Raphaeliteslike the Rossetti siblings and William Morrisidealize and long for the morality of the medieval world. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.
Renaissance in Europe: Meaning, Causes and Results of Renaissance
This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. The Enlightenment Neoclassical Period CE " Neoclassical " refers to the increased influence of Classical literature upon these centuries. The Postmodern Period - onward T. Subjects: English.
Tags: englishliterary criticismliterary periodsliterature.Although historians have delineated the eras of British literature in different ways over time, common divisions are outlined below. This period of literature dates back to their invasion along with the Jutes of Celtic England circa The era ends in when Norman France, under William, conquered England.
Much of the first half of this period—prior to the seventh century, at least—had oral literature. The era extends to around As with the Old English periodmuch of the Middle English writings were religious in nature; however, from about onward, secular literature began to rise. The Elizabethan Age was the golden age of English drama. The Jacobean Age is named for the reign of James I. Finally, the Commonwealth Period was so named for the period between the end of the English Civil War and the restoration of the Stuart monarchy.
This is the time when Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan, led Parliament, who ruled the nation. At this time, public theaters were closed for nearly two decades to prevent public assembly and to combat moral and religious transgressions.
The Restoration period sees some response to the puritanical age, especially in the theater. Restoration comedies comedies of manner developed during this time under the talent of playwrights like William Congreve and John Dryden. Satire, too, became quite popular, as evidenced by the success of Samuel Butler. The Augustan Age was the time of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, who imitated those first Augustans and even drew parallels between themselves and the first set. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, a poet, was prolific at this time and noted for challenging stereotypically female roles.
Daniel Defoe was also popular. Ideas such as neoclassicism, a critical and literary mode, and the Enlightenment, a particular worldview shared by many intellectuals, were championed during this age. The beginning date for the Romantic period is often debated.
Some claim it isimmediately following the Age of Sensibility. American literature has its own Romantic periodbut typically when one speaks of Romanticism, one is referring to this great and diverse age of British literature, perhaps the most popular and well-known of all literary ages.
There is also a minor period, also quite popular between —called the Gothic era.Marketing concept apple care vs care
It was a time of great social, religious, intellectual, and economic issues, heralded by the passage of the Reform Bill, which expanded voting rights. The Victorian period is in strong contention with the Romantic period for being the most popular, influential, and prolific period in all of English and world literature.No experience resume college student
The Georgian period usually refers to the reign of George V — but sometimes also includes the reigns of the four successive Georges from — Here, we refer to the former description as it applies chronologically and covers, for example, the Georgian poets, such as Ralph Hodgson, John Masefield, W.
Davies, and Rupert Brooke.
13 Literary Periods and Movements: Guide & More
Georgian poetry today is typically considered to be the works of minor poets anthologized by Edward Marsh. The themes and subject matter tended to be rural or pastoral in nature, treated delicately and traditionally rather than with passion like was found in the previous periods or with experimentation as would be seen in the upcoming modern period.3 body paragraphs essay
The modern period traditionally applies to works written after the start of World War I. Common features include bold experimentation with subject matter, style, and form, encompassing narrative, verse, and drama. Forster, and Doris Lessing; the poets W. Yeats, T.
Eliot, W. New Criticism also appeared at this time, led by the likes of Woolf, Eliot, William Empson, and others, which reinvigorated literary criticism in general. It is difficult to say whether modernism has ended, though we know that postmodernism has developed after and from it; for now, the genre remains ongoing.
The postmodern period begins about the time that World War II ended. Many believe it is a direct response to modernism. Some say the period ended aboutbut it is likely too soon to declare this period closed.Welcome to our topic Introduction to European Literature!
As students of European Literature, it is fitting and proper that you put things in the context of European Literature whether as an observer or an insider or someone part of the entire continental Europe. Hop on! Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth.
Physically and geologicallyEurope is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, west of Asia. Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Mediterranean Sea, to the southeast by the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. See map above for more details.
European literature refers to the literature of Europe. European literature includes literature in many languages; among the most important of the modern written works are those in English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Polish, German, Italian, Modern Greek, Czech and Russian and works by the Scandinavians and Irish.
European literaturealso known as Western literatureis the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, as several geographically or historically related languages.
Diverse as they are, European literatures, like Indo-European languages, are parts of a common heritage belonging to a race of proud nations which boast the likes of Homer who wrote Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil who wrote the Aeneid, Dante who wrote Divine Comedy, Chaucer who wrote Canterbury Tales.
These, and other literary masterpieces form part of what we call as Western Canon. The common literary heritage is essentially that originating in ancient Greece and Rome. It was preserved, transformed, and spread by Christianity and thus transmitted to the vernacular languages of the European Continent, the Western Hemisphere, and other regions that were settled by Europeans.
To the present day, this body of writing displays a unity in its main features that sets it apart from the literatures of the rest of the world.Researchgate wiki of thrones watch
The languages may be varied due to geographical distances but they share a common sense of identity bound by a common sense of ancestry. Some of the European languages include:. It was preserved, transformed, and spread by Christianity and thus transmitted to the vernacular languages of the European Continent, the Western Hemisphere, and other regions that were settled into by the Europeans.
This covers the five ancient civilizations of Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome including the culture of the Israelites in Palestine—each came into contact with one or more of the others not necessarily in order but essentially by the influence each exerted over the others. The use of clay tablets, papyrus paper scrolls paved the way for the writing of the Holy Scriptures which is very much influential in European literature.
Likewise, songs, poems, fables, anecdotes and parables were all invented during this period. Also known as Dark Ages, due to the prevailing conditions during this period, barbarian invasion and Muslim conquests marked this era. Wars, famine, plagues and decline in culture and learning. Hence, the greatest number of books published during this era were bound with plain wooden boards, or with simple tooled leather for more expensive volumes.Shetland islands council youth services
The term Renaissance rebirth or revival is given to the historical period in Europe that succeeded the Middle Ages. This period marked the reawakening of a new spirit of intellectual and artistic inquiry, which was the dominant feature of this political, religious, and philosophical phenomenon, was essentially a revival of the spirit of ancient Greece and Rome.
In literature this meant a new interest in and analysis of the great classical writers. Scholars searched for and translated lost ancient texts, whose dissemination was much helped by developments in printing in Europe from about In the fifteenth century A.
The beacon light of Renaissance which first appeared in Italy travelled to other countries of Europe in due course of time. The expanded horizon of human knowledge was reflected in various fields including art, literature and science. In medieval times, the Church regulated education and cast its influence upon the society. When human mind wanted to be free from that bandage and welcomed new light. Renaissance took place. The fall of Constantinople was its main cause.
It was the centre of learning. Although, it was under the clutches of the Christians, many Greek scholars were living there. They became famous by teaching Greek language and literature to the people. In A. They taught mathematics, history, geography, philosophy, astronomy, medicine etc. This gave birth to Renaissance.
Secondly, the invention of printing machine was responsible for Renaissance. John Gutenberg of Germany invented printing machine and letters and printed book.
William Caxton brought this machine to England in A. With the march of time, printing machines were established in Italy, France, Belgium and other European countries. Thus, books could be published very easily with a short span of time. People could easily get books for study and learnt many things.
This galvanised Renaissance. Thirdly, many kings, nobles and merchants encouraged new literature and art. Loronjo-de-Medicci, the ruler of Florence invited many artists to his court and decorated his palace with new paintings.
The progressive idea of these rulers galvanised Renaissance. Finally, the men with new thoughts paved the way for Renaissance. They advised not to accept anything blindly which is not proved properly. Peter Abelard of the University of Paris inspired his contemporaries to create enthusiasm among themselves for research. They should accept anything if it is convinced by reason.
He was compelled by Christian Priests to withdraw his view and he did it. Another wiseman of the time was Roger Bacon of Oxford University who said that nothing should be accepted without proper experiment and observation.
He had to spend some years in the Church prison because of his radical view. Thus, these persons with new ideas paved the way for Renaissance. The results of the Renaissance were far reaching.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Western literature. Main article: Ancient Greek literature.
Main article: Latin literature. Main article: Catalan literature. Main article: French Literature. Main article: Galician-language literature.
Main article: Italian literature. Main article: Portuguese literature. Main article: Romanian literature. Main article: Spanish literature. Main article: Latin American literature.
Main article: Aragonese literature. Main article: Western Lombard literature. Main article: Occitan literature. Main article: Anglo-Norman literature. Main article: English literature. Main article: Scots literature.
Main article: Dutch literature. Main article: Flemish literature. Main article: German literature. Main article: Austrian literature.
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